A Survey of All Knowledge

Today’s blogger is Daniel Tanner, Board Chair of the Daniel Tanner Foundation. He reflects here on the writings of Frank Lester Ward, the subject of an article recently published in The Educational Forum.

In early 1961, while attending the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association in Los Angeles, the announcement was made that the book The Transformation of the School by Lawrence Cremin had just been awarded the Pulitzer Prize in history.

Unfortunately, the publisher’s representative at the conference had no copies for sale at the meetings. I soon obtained a copy after I returned home and found that once I opened the pages I could not put it down.

Beautifully written, yet richly documented, the book told the story of the life and passing of the movement for progressive education that was part of the larger social movement of progressivism in America from 1876 to 1957.

In Transformation I found only passing mention on how, early on in John Dewey’s tenure at the University of Chicago, a colleague there, Albion Small, called Dewey’s attention to a book by Lester Frank Ward that had been massively ignored and virtually forgotten.

Had it not been for Small, according to Cremin, “a whole generation of educators might well have missed his work.” Ward’s ideas on education, as outlined by Cremin, were profound and fascinating to my mind, but all too brief with no mention of how Dewey drew upon Ward’s ideas. And so I obtained from interlibrary loan a copy of Ward’s massive and musty two-volume work published in 1883, Dynamic Sociology or Applied Social Science.

Tracing every source I could find on Ward’s life and work, I found that Dynamic Sociology sold very poorly, fewer than 500 copies in 10 years. The two volumes ended with a concluding chapter of almost 100 dense pages under the title Education. The footnote on the first page of the chapter explained that it was “an abridgement of a far more extended treatise actually written ten years earlier” (1873).

Cremin’s Transformation begins with the year 1876, marking the opening of the progressive movement in American education. In the final chapter of Ward’s magnum opus, Ward presented his vision of the three universal curriculums to meet the needed democratic prospect for the 20th century. Ward admitted that no one knew the shape or form that would be taken by the three universal curriculums, but he presented in detail the guiding principles for the new curriculum synthesis that was left for John Dewey’s Democracy and Education (1916).

The lives of Ward and Dewey could not have been more different: Dewey, from a long line of Vermont heritage and security, and Ward from the American heartland and early years of laborious work and struggle. Largely self-educated, Ward managed to obtain degrees to qualify for careers in law and medicine, but his passion was in natural science.

Dewey’s opportunity for higher education was smoothly available in his chosen field of philosophy. Whereas Dewey did not discard the remnants of religious sentiment until his earliest adult years, Ward was an iconoclast, and examined deeply the comparative origins and influences of science and religion in society. Both men were greatly influenced by Darwin’s findings and ideas.

Ward held that through the evolution of the human brain, humanity was empowered to direct the progression of civilization. Ward and later Dewey contended that the course of human progress was to be shaped by scientific method or “the method of intelligence,” released through universal educational opportunity to meet the democratic educational prospect.

After working as a paleontologist for the U.S. Geological Survey, Ward’s writings eventually drew recognition to the extent that he became recognized as the founder of the field of sociology, although one could say it was the entire broad field of social science, as indicated in the title of Ward’s masterwork. At age 65, Ward was invited to join the faculty of Brown University. He was truly an orchestral man, so it seemed fitting that students at Brown flocked to his course, A Survey of All Knowledge. At his passing in 1913 at the age of 72, Ward’s copious collection of notebooks and records were burned by his wife.

Daniel Tanner is Professor Emeritus in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers University. He is author of Crusade for Democracy: Progressive Education at the Crossroads (SUNY Press, 2015), and coauthor (with Laurel Tanner) of History of the School Curriculum (Macmillan, 1990) and Curriculum Development: Theory Into Practice (4th ed., Pearson, 2007). 

Top 5 Reasons to Update Your KDP Profile Preferences

So many great resources are available to KDP members that it might be a little overwhelming.

However, we now offer a way for you to tell KDP what you want! Your MyKDP profile allows you to indicate and change your interest areas and your expertise, and specify what you want from your membership experience. Here are the top five reasons why updating your preferences will help you.

5) Tailor communications for you. By indicating your interests, we are sure to alert you to new resources, issues, and events that fit what you want to know about.

4) Connect with other members who have similar interests. These interests will help unite you with those who have similar issues, questions, or concerns around the topic. This way, you can communicate and learn from one another.

3) Reduce irrelevant emails. Get messages which provide content that addresses the topics most important to you.

2) Help KDP create resources for your needs. By learning what your interests are, KDP can focus our efforts on resources, benefits, and services that you need to succeed.

1) Ensure you are getting the most from your membership. We want you to succeed, and the best way to help is by providing you with relevant resources for your needs—no matter where you are in your career. To do this, we need your feedback on how we can best support you.

Log in to MyKDP and click on My Education and Interests and My Expectations from Membership to edit your information. Select your choices and save. It’s that easy!

Thanks for being a member of Kappa Delta Pi!

5 Perfect Summer Side Gigs for Teachers

Today’s blogger is Joyce Wilson, who has worked as a teacher for decades. She believes knowledge is the key to a more successful and fruitful life. 

When school lets out for the summer, teachers collectively exhale. For many, this two-month break means travel, getting back into hobbies, or catching up on favorite books, movies, or shows. But for others, that’s 10 weeks without a paycheck, which can be a bit nerve-wracking. As an educator, you have many skills and talents that you can put toward a side job to help supplement your income during those summer months.

Not sure where to start? If you want to earn extra income during the summer, this list might offer some perfect opportunities to work side gigs or even start your own business.

Sell Your Materials

As a teacher, you have amassed an enormous amount of materials, activities, and ideas that you can sell online to other educators. You could spend the summer getting your own business off the ground—building a website, recording a few videos, setting up e-commerce, and uploading your materials—so that this income can roll in year-round. A little time and effort now can generate passive income even when you resume teaching.

Give People a Lyft

An ideal summer job for teachers is one with flexible hours that they can wrap around any schedule they want. That’s what makes ridesharing services like Uber or Lyft great gigs; they let you set your own hours, use your own vehicle, and meet new people. If you want to work, you do; and if you feel like spending a few days enjoying your break, you don’t have to work. Many people can earn as much as $20 an hour driving for a rideshare, which requires minimal processing and training.

Work Online

From freelance writing to online tutoring, working online can be a great summer gig for educators, and there are lots of opportunities out there. ACT hires educators to be item writers who ensure that test questions reflect what is actually being taught in classrooms. The eNotes Educator program frequently hires educators as answer writers for their online homework help section. Some teachers report making nearly $40 per answer writing for eNotes. English teachers who enjoy the world of online learning can hop over to VIPKid and earn up to $20 an hour teaching English to second language learners. Similar to working for a ridesharing company, you can often set your own hours and workload by freelancing online.

Teach Other Teachers

Your experience and knowledge is worth sharing—and being paid for. Teach other educators how to use your innovative ideas by setting up courses on a platform like Udemy. Let’s say you have a curriculum that incorporates social media, or have a communication style that works with even the most distant of parents. You can create an online course and promote it on Udemy for other educators to learn from.

Caring for Others

Summer is a great time to earn extra cash as a babysitter, dog walker, or part-time caregiver. With kids out of school for the summer, many parents scramble to find accommodations, and who wouldn’t love an in-home summer nanny who is a certified teacher? On websites like Sittercity.com, you can apply for jobs that involve—you guessed it—caring for others, which is something teachers tend to excel at.

Be Wise About Managing Your Finances

Whichever gig you choose, be sure to start by creating a financial plan. When starting your own business, you need to spend your money wisely; one way to do that is to choose the right credit card. Many business credit cards offer cash back rewards, which could help you purchase more materials for your classroom, while others help you build credit, which would be very helpful for a new business. Having a business credit card can also help you establish and stick with a budget for keeping your venture up and running. Many websites for these cards have built-in budgeting tools, and seeing a breakdown of your expenses each month—although you should check them at least weekly—will help you see where your money is going and whether you’re investing it in the right areas.

Whether you need the extra income or just want to stay busy, summer is a great time for teachers to flex their entrepreneurial muscles. You can teach kids English online or walk dogs in your neighborhood. You can help make sure college prep test questions are up to snuff, or hop in your car and drive people around town. Your expertise as an educator can be your strength in a side gig.

Kappa Delta Pi and CourseNetworking Team Up to Support New Teachers

(INDIANAPOLIS)—Kappa Delta Pi (KDP), International Honor Society in Education, is partnering with CourseNetworking (CN), an innovative Indianapolis-based technology company in education, to draw on the Society’s rich legacy of high standards and excellence to support the professional growth and retention of new teachers.

Beginning teachers have high turnover rates that cost schools billions of dollars each year. One effective way to combat the revolving door of teachers and its negative effects on schools and students is to offer new teachers professional development. Dr. Richard Ingersoll, a prominent researcher and member of KDP’s esteemed Laureate Chapter, shared, “Somewhere between 40 and 50 percent of those that go into teaching are gone within 5 years.” KDP is perfectly positioned to address the needs of beginning teachers, as the organization has a presence on the campuses of more than 650 institutions nationwide, helping to graduate nearly 10,000 education students into the profession each year.

Beginning in fall 2018, KDP will offer new opportunities for educators to expand their knowledge and skills through online learning as well as to establish a permanent eportfolio. A selection of courses, which will be both affordable and convenient, will help teachers develop competencies that can be applied immediately in their classrooms. After successfully proving their competencies in each course, teachers will earn micro-credentials in the form of official badges, and have an opportunity to earn certificates they can use as proof of their skills, as continuing education, and as evidence of these accomplishments on their eportfolio. Among the initial topics for P–12 teachers will be areas that KDP research has identified to be the most challenging for new teachers. The majority of the course offerings will be asynchronous, with learner engagement both independently and within an online community.

“CN is very excited to work with KDP in implementing the most advanced new-age learning environment, the CN Learning Suite,” shared Dr. Ali Jafari, CN Chairman and CEO. “The CN LMS provides easy access to new KDP certification and badge-based courses while the CN Social Network connects KDP members globally to network and collaborate. The CN ePortfolio offers a lifelong professional cyber image for all KDP members. With this collaboration, we can change the way scholarly societies network and conduct continued professional development.”

KDP President-Elect Dr. Victoria Tusken, who has worked in education for 30 years—including 4 as a Secondary Curriculum Coordinator in Illinois—believes that KDP has an opportunity to be at the forefront of ongoing professional growth for teachers. “To think about micro-credentialing in terms of steps toward mastering specific skills is just good professional development,” said Tusken. “The typical professional development never sticks. Practitioners need ownership of their professional development, and the ‘one-size-fits-all’ format often pushed down from districts proves to be viewed by practitioners as a waste of their time. But, to provide short courses around specific topics and competencies has a deep impact and a lasting value for practitioners.”

Though the initial offerings will be geared toward practicing P–12 educators, KDP plans to leverage its innovative model to address all three major focus areas of the Society’s current strategic vision, which are to (1) Recruit qualified candidates into the profession, (2) Support and enhance quality preparation of teachers, and (3) Retain effective teachers—particularly in high needs areas.

The projected timeline will make the courses and eportfolio available to KDP members and other educators prior to the Society’s 52nd Convocation, to be held in Indianapolis, IN from Wednesday, October 31 through Saturday, November 3, 2018. This year’s Convocation, themed ”Designing the Future,” will feature a cutting-edge experience where all attendees of all generations and experience levels not only gain knowledge and strategies, but also collaborate to design a future that is sustainable, equitable, and promising for ALL learners.

For more information about the eportfolio, please visit http://www.thecn.com/eportfolio, and for more information about KDP, please visit http://www.kdp.org. You can view the official press release here.

About Kappa Delta Pi
Kappa Delta Pi (KDP), International Honor Society in Education, was founded in 1911 at the University of Illinois to foster excellence in education and promote fellowship among those dedicated to teaching. As a professional membership association and international honor society in education, KDP provides programs, services, and resources to its member educators to support and enhance their professional growth—all in an effort to advance quality education for all and to inspire teachers to prepare all learners for future challenges. With more than 650 active chapters and nearly 40,000 active members, the organization has seen great accomplishments and milestones in its 107-year history and is looking forward to a future where all children receive a quality education.

About CourseNetworking, LLC
CourseNetworking (CN) has a unique, next-generation technology solution for the education Industry supported by many years of thinking and research invested prior to the commercialization of the product. Built on a global education platform, the CN Suite offers a comprehensive Learning Management System (LMS), Social Portfolio, Global Academic Social Network, and Badging, as well as other social collaboration functionalities to transform teaching and learning. The CN was built to ensure that teaching and learning opportunities are available for everyone, anywhere in the world, at any time, through the web or the mobile app. The CN also provides a full turnkey solution for system implementation in institutions. The CN is the fourth major research and entrepreneurial project of the IUPUI CyberLab. The CourseNetworking LLC was created by a capital investment from Indiana University and Ali Jafari in 2011.

Moving Beyond Figuring It Out on Your Own: Preparing and Developing Linguistically Responsive Teachers

Today’s blogger is Meghan Bratkovich, Doctoral Candidate in Teacher Education and Teacher Development at Montclair State University, a contributor to the special issue of The Educational Forum on linguistically diverse students. See this month’s free article from that issue of The Educational Forum.

“How did you learn how to do this?” 

I had just observed a high school math teacher, highly effective by about every formal and informal measure, teaching a lesson to a class of English language learners (ELLs). Due to a shortage of credentialed bilingual teachers, Mr. Erickson, a self-described monolingual, had been identified to teach a section of bilingual geometry. As much Spanish as English rattled around the classroom as students excitedly reasoned through the differences between lines and line segments, actively debating their way through the classwork.

Though little in his prior education or experience had prepared him for this task, Mr. Erickson was managing to teach geometry under these constraints, and teach it well.

“I don’t know, I guess I just figured it out on my own,” Mr. Erickson said, breathing a heavy sigh. “I don’t even know if it’s what I should be doing.”

“What if you hadn’t agreed to teach this class?” I asked.

“They’d probably be sitting at the back of some mainstream classroom, not understanding anything,” he replied.

Every school has its “Mr. Erickson” among the teachers who are willing to go above and beyond, the ones who will work with students with whom they can only imperfectly communicate—the teachers who always seem to make it work. We also probably know the other teachers—those Mr. Erickson referenced—who are so unsure of how to help a struggling ELL sitting at the back of their class that they do nothing, which is exactly what they’ve been or feel prepared to do. The teaching of ELLs is too important to fall solely on the shoulders of good teachers who feel un- or underprepared.

Teachers looking to build or improve their teaching of ELLs can see this special issue of The Educational Forum as their invitation into an established community of inquiry seeking to make sense of the complexity of teaching ELLs and strengthen teaching practices. The community shares knowledge and research geared toward helping teachers feel as prepared to respond to the needs of their language learner students as they feel to teach their content. Collectively, the reviews, studies, and commentaries in this issue point to the need for linguistically responsive teachers—those who can teach academic content in ways that are comprehensible while simultaneously attending to and furthering the development of students’ language skills.

Teachers beginning their journeys into teaching ELLs might be drawn to Athanases and Wong (2018), who offer evidence that can help teachers to tailor their practitioner inquiry, systematically study their students, and develop an asset-based orientation that fosters inclusive practice. Individuals seeking research-based ELL writing programs can look to Haas, Goldman, and Faltis (2018), who provide a deep dive into transdisciplinary best practices for writing at middle and high school levels.

Those looking to better understand the broad landscape of research on how teachers learn to teach ELLs can look to literature reviews from Villegas, SaizdeLaMora, Martin, and Mills (2018) and Lucas, Strom, Bratkovich, and Wnuk (2018). These reviews provide readers with a succinct synthesis of research studies conducted to date, condensing decades of research and helping to situate, contextualize, and explain the anecdotal experiences that teachers like Mr. Erickson live every day in their classrooms.

Lastly, de Jong, Naranjo, Li, and Ouzia (2018) provide pathways for teacher educators and teacher leaders to support teachers in building their confidence and competence around their ELL teaching practices. The authors emphasize that transforming education for ELLs necessitates preparing the preparers and inclusively brings teacher educators, administrators, and supervisors into the cultivation of a linguistically responsive approach to education.

It is vital that all teachers feel confident and competent teaching ELLs. However, no teacher should be forced to figure it out on their own, to needlessly reinvent the wheel, or to start from scratch. Students deserve better. Teachers deserve better. This special issue offers multiple entry points into conversations and communities striving for better, practical, and pervasive understandings of linguistically responsive teaching to ground teacher leaders and teacher educators, prepare and support teachers, and ultimately serve students.

KDP is proud to partner with Routledge to share an essay from the special issue of The Educational Forum with the education community. Access the article at Taylor and Francis Online, free through June 30, 2018.

Top Websites for Inclusive Classrooms

The demands upon teachers continue to grow, especially as they seek to accommodate all of their students’ learning needs.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act provides that students with disabilities are educated in the least restrictive environment, or that of their same-grade peers. According to the The U.S. Department of Education, 95 percent of 6- to 21-year-old students with disabilities were served in regular schools.

It is incumbent upon teachers, in an era of accountability and mandates set by the Every Student Succeeds Act, to prepare themselves to face the challenges in meeting the needs of students with exceptional learning needs. At the same time, student engagement is at an all-time low and decreases every year starting in the fifth grade; reaching its lowest point by eleventh grade.

Continuing to build classroom supports is essential to keep students encouraged to learn and hopeful for their future. The following websites offer teachers the opportunity, at no cost, to reinforce classroom knowledge and skills while giving students the opportunity to use technology to reinforce their learning.

Flocabulary

Flocabulary offers an engaging approach to K-12 vocabulary instruction aligned to the Common Core State Standards. It offers a free trial and discounts for school-wide subscriptions. Through the use of rap music, Flocabulary helps activate auditory processing and memory and reinforces concepts in all academic subjects including Life Skills and Current Events, necessary for students with exceptional learning needs. All videos have captions, include transcripts, and have variable speed controls to accommodate all learners.

Reading Educator

Students with disabilities must be explicitly taught how to use reading strategies because they do not automatically know how to use these strategies. Reading Educator assumes that every teacher is a reading teacher, and support in the general education classroom comes through the teaching of research-based strategies, which help students become more active in their learning. The website provides sample lesson plans and models of effective strategies such as active reading, vocabulary development, classroom discussion, and higher-order questioning. Additional resources include fun supplemental activities for parents to encourage reading at home.

Funbrain

Designed primarily for grades Pre–K through grade 8, funbrain includes a variety of educational games and videos including all traditional academic areas as well as memory challenges, strategy skills, patterns, logic, and sign language. These animated and interactive games disguise learning through video gaming modules.

Free Rice

Students with exceptional learning needs require review and practice of basic concepts and reinforcement of material previously learned. Based at the United Nations World Food Programme to end world hunger, Free Rice is a win-win website. Teachers are able to register their students to play as a group. As the students answer the questions correctly, a visual representation is shown of the grains of rice that will be donated. This website is appropriate for students at all grade levels. Subjects include: basic math operations, grammar, science, and geography, anatomy, chemistry, pre-algebra, and SAT preparation.

Bookshare

Accommodating the diverse learning needs in the classroom can be challenging and costly. Bookshare.org is an accessible online library for persons with a documented print disability. This website has over a half a million titles and many different options to read books. Students are able to listen to books using text-to-speech voices. Books are available in enlarged font, digital braille, and image description.

Quizlet

Quizlet is an interactive website which allows students the opportunity to practice material learned through digital flashcards that are created by both teachers and students. Study sets can be transformed into games and practice tests to promote application of the vocabulary terms. Students can search for previously created study sets that align with specific course content. Quizlet Live is another version of quizlet. In this feature, teachers can create teams throughout their classroom to play collaborative games to further reinforce vocabulary.

Guysread

Students with learning disabilities are reluctant readers and have motivational problems due to repeated reading failure and negative reading experiences (Melekoglu & Wilkerson, 2013). It’s based on the premise that when children and youth are given interesting material to read, they become more proficient and life-long readers. Guysread is a web-based literacy program for boys, who are more likely than girls to receive special education services and have markedly lower achievement in language arts from elementary through high school (2009). The website includes book recommendations by genre and age range. Interesting reading material on superheroes and supervillains, graphic novels, cars, mystery, fantasy, and sports can also be found.

With these resources, you will provide opportunities for students with disabilities to review and practice educational concepts with technology, all the while facilitating your engagement and motivation to learn.

 

Rachel is a senior undergraduate student at Flagler College and plans to attend graduate school in the fall. Her current interests include students with exceptional needs with focus on best practices in working with children with autism, and behavioral issues.

Cheryl has a Ph.D. in Special Education with expertise in Learning and Behavioral Disorders. She currently teaches in the Education Department at Flagler College.

Seven Tips for Preparing for the PRAXIS Elementary Education Exam: Multiple Subjects (5001)

The Praxis Education exams must be passed by those who want to become professional educators. Most states require the test for Education students. The exact Praxis tests you will take depends on the grade levels and the content areas you plan to teach. Because the test is computer-based, take time familiarizing yourself with the process of Praxis.

The 5001 Praxis Multiple Content Area Exam includes questions based on all of the major content areas for elementary education, including mathematics, social studies, science, and reading/language arts. . The reading and language arts section represents the majority of the questions with 80. The social studies section has 55 questions, while science and mathematics each include 50 questions.

Since this exam covers all of the major content areas, it is best to be prepared properly. The 240Tutoring PRAXIS Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects 5001 Study Guide has 1000 practice questions to help you prepare.

Education exams are expensive, so the best strategy is to spend as much time as possible preparing. A worst case scenario is having to retake the test in a few months because you failed due to inadequate preparation. You can avoid this scenario by spending some time with the practice questions and reviewing these tips.

  1. On the day of your Praxis exam, arrive early to the test center. If you’re running late, you might not be allowed to take the test, thus wasting the money you spent on the test. To avoid any surprises, view this short video on what to expect on test day
  2. The testing center prohibits all electronic devices. They do not allow drinks or food either. Leave your phone in your vehicle and put it out of your mind for the next four hours.
  3. Eat a good breakfast that will not leave you hungry in an hour, but don’t eat so much food that you’re groggy or running to the bathroom every so often.
  4. The Praxis exam is scored based on your correct answers. If you are unsure about an answer, make your best guess. There is no penalty for missing a question. Remember, you get credit for correct answers, you are not penalized for wrong answers.
  5. Read questions carefully. Missing a question based on a technicality or carelessness is avoidable. Some questions require more than one answer, while others require you to select a sentence, while others might require you to select an entire paragraph in a story. Never assume what the question is asking, read it carefully before answering.
  6. Since your Praxis exam covers all content areas, determine what grade level is implied within the question. For example, you would probably not give the same math advice to a kindergarten student as you would to an eighth grader. Read closely to determine which age group to the question refers to.
  7. Finally, if you are unsure about an answer, you are allowed to mark it and return to it later. The test is long and you can easily become frustrated when you’re stuck on a problem. Simply skip the problematic question and return to it later. The time crunch won’t feel so oppressive if you know you have one remaining question and 30 minutes to solve it.

Follow these tips and keep calm while taking the Praxis 5001 exam. Half of the battle is arriving to the testing center with a positive attitude. Watch the video so you know exactly what to expect. Spend time leading preparing for the exam by doing practice questions. After all, without preparation, you are actually preparing to fail. With proper preparation, you’ll have a great shot at passing the exam the first time you take it!

Scott Rozell is the Director of 240Tutoring, Inc. 240Tutoring is the premiere provider of PRAXIS study guides and has helped over ten thousand teachers pass their certification exam and get into the classroom.